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Biology Syllabus for NEET

 

Chapters Class XI Chapters Class XII
Unit – 1 Diversity in Living World Unit – 1 Reproduction
Unit – 2 Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants Unit – 2 Genetics and Evolution
Unit -3 Cell Structure and Function Unit -3 Biology and Human Welfare
Unit -4 Plant Physiology Unit -4 Biotechnology and Its Applications
Unit -5 Human physiology Unit -5 Ecology and environment

CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYALLBUS

UNIT I : DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD

  • What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens
  • Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids
  • Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
  • Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

UNIT II : STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS

  • Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf,inflorescence- cymose and recemose,  flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the PracticalSyllabus).
  • Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous andreproductive) of an insect (cockroach).

UNIT III : CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cellenvelope, cell membrane, cell wall;Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum,Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids,
    micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella,centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
  • Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids;Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
  • B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

UNIT IV : PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

  • Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, activetransport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition,water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water –Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation;Transpiration-Opening and closing ofstomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis;Diffusion of gases
  • Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity;Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biologicalnitrogen fixation.
  • Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involvedin Photosynthesis (Elementary idea);
    Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic andphotophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
  • Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transportsystem (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
  • Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth;Differentiation, dedifferentiation and .
    redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growthregulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; ernalisation; Photoperiodism

UNIT V : HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

  • Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinalhormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value ofproteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion;  Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation,vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
  • Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism ofbreathing and its regulation in humans-.
    Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratoryvolumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders
  • Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and itsfunction; Human circulatory system-
    Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG,Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary arterydisease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
  • Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretorysystem-structure and fuction;
    Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, AtrialNatriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure,Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
  • Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins andmuscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus);Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis,Osteoporosis, Gout.
  • Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheralnervous system and  visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs;Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
  • Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus,Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea);Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g.Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison‟s disease).

CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYALLBUS

UNIT I : REPRODUCTION

  • Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes ofreproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule,fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants
  • Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples;
    Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo,  Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis,parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
  • Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis;
    Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation;Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition
    (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
  • Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods,
    Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assistedreproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT
    (Elementary idea for general awareness).

UNIT II : GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

  • Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance,Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosometheory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossingover; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomaldisorders in humans; Down‟s syndrome, Turner‟s and Klinefelter‟s syndromes.
  • Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA;DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression andregulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
  • Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparativeanatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin‟s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanismof evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection;Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg‟s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III : BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE

  • Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia,common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence,drug and alcohol abuse
  • Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animalhusbandry.
  • Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation andas biocontrol agents and biofertilizers

UNIT IV : BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

  • Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
  • Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Geneticallymodified organisms-Bt crops;
    Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V : ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

  • Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism,competition, Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism,competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
  • Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy;Nutrient cycling Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy;Nutrient cycling  (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination,oxygen release.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss ofBiodiversity; Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss ofBiodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves,National parks and sanctuaries.
  • Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solidwaste management; Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solidwaste management;  Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion;Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.