Biology Syllabus for NEET
|Chapters||Class XI||Chapters||Class XII|
|Unit – 1||Diversity in Living World||Unit – 1||Reproduction|
|Unit – 2||Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants||Unit – 2||Genetics and Evolution|
|Unit -3||Cell Structure and Function||Unit -3||Biology and Human Welfare|
|Unit -4||Plant Physiology||Unit -4||Biotechnology and Its Applications|
|Unit -5||Human physiology||Unit -5||Ecology and environment|
CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYALLBUS
UNIT I : DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD
- What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens
- Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids
- Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
- Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT II : STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS
- Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf,inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the PracticalSyllabus).
- Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous andreproductive) of an insect (cockroach).
UNIT III : CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cellenvelope, cell membrane, cell wall;Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum,Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids,
micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella,centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids;Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
- B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance
UNIT IV : PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
- Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, activetransport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition,water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water –Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation;Transpiration-Opening and closing ofstomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis;Diffusion of gases
- Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity;Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biologicalnitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involvedin Photosynthesis (Elementary idea);
Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic andphotophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transportsystem (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth;Differentiation, dedifferentiation and .
redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growthregulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; ernalisation; Photoperiodism
UNIT V : HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
- Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinalhormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value ofproteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation,vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
- Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism ofbreathing and its regulation in humans-.
Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratoryvolumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders
- Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and itsfunction; Human circulatory system-
Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG,Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary arterydisease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretorysystem-structure and fuction;
Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, AtrialNatriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure,Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins andmuscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus);Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis,Osteoporosis, Gout.
- Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheralnervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs;Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus,Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea);Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g.Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison‟s disease).
CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYALLBUS
UNIT I : REPRODUCTION
- Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes ofreproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule,fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples;
Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis,parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis;
Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation;Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition
(Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
- Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods,
Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assistedreproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT
(Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II : GENETICS AND EVOLUTION
- Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance,Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosometheory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossingover; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomaldisorders in humans; Down‟s syndrome, Turner‟s and Klinefelter‟s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA;DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression andregulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
- Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparativeanatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin‟s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanismof evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection;Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg‟s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
UNIT III : BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE
- Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia,common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence,drug and alcohol abuse
- Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animalhusbandry.
- Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation andas biocontrol agents and biofertilizers
UNIT IV : BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
- Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Geneticallymodified organisms-Bt crops;
Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V : ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
- Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism,competition, Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism,competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy;Nutrient cycling Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy;Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination,oxygen release.
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss ofBiodiversity; Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss ofBiodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves,National parks and sanctuaries.
- Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solidwaste management; Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solidwaste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion;Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.